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by Archaeology Newsroom

Γνωριμία με τους πρωτοπόρους και τους σκαπανείς (2)

(cont. from part I) Paris 1965. He was also the editor of the journal Gallia Prehistoire. The surface survey in Eleia, NW Peloponnese, was not followed up by an excavation, and so Leroi-Gourhan was unable to put his techniques and excavation methods for Palaeolithic sites into practice. Had he been able to apply his methods in the field, the course of Prehistoric research might have been different.

Henry de Lumley (1934)

French prehistorian. Professor of Prehistory and Director of the Musee National d’ Histoire Naturelle in Paris. He has been involved with the Early and Middle Prehistoric periods and has headed excavations on many Palaeolithic sites in the south of France, as in the Tautavel caves, where the well-known human skull, Hortus, Lazaret, Terra Amata, was discovered. He also directed the research on Mount Bego, in the Vallee des Merveilles, in the south of France, where the rock paintings of the Bronze-Stone Age and the Bronze Age were discovered. He organised the 9th Congress of the Union Internationale des Sciences Prehistoriques et Protohistoriques (UISPP), wich took place in Nice, France, in 1976. Within the framework of the Prehistory laboratory he is in charge of, he promotes interdisciplinary cooperation, with emphasis on the Quarternarys Geology and the study ot the palaeoenvironment. His works include; Le Paleolithique inferieur et Moyen du Midi mediterraneen dans son carde geologique, Paris 1969-1971, Une cabane acheuleenne dans la grotte du Lazaret (Nice), Paris 1969, Le Grandiose et le Sacre, Aix-en-Provence 1995. He has edited the three volume work La Prehistoire Frangaise, Paris 1976, and he is also the editor of the journal L’Anthropoiogie.

Adalbert Markovitz (1897-1941)

An active member of Austria’s and Germany’s spelaeological organisations, Markovitz was initially involved in the scientific research of karstic formations in Central Europe, Austria in particular. During the period 1928-1940, he carried out extensive spelaeological research and systematic excavations in Greece, with the assistance of the Anthropology Museum of the University of Athens. His research aimed to confirm his belief, that human presence and habitation in the Helladic region occurred as early as the Palaeolithic period. This was contrary to the established archaeological view of the time, both in Greece and abroad, which held that the Greek geographical region had been settled for the first time during the Neolithic period, through migrations from the north. The Zaimi cave (no 413), at Kakia Skala in the Megarid, was the first to produce positive results, with the discovery of stromatographic horizons and cultural remains belonging to an earlier period than the Neolithic one. This has become his better known search, through his publications in the Annals of the Hellenic Anthropological Society of 1928, 1929, 1930,

1931, the Spelaeological Jahrbuch (Wien), 1932-1933, the Mitteilungen der Geographischen Gesellschaft..

1932, the Mitteilungen uber Hoelen und Karstforschung,

1933, the Forschungen und Fortschitte (Berlin), 1933. The later excavations of the Ulbrich cave in Nauplia, confirmed the basic conclusions from the Kakia Skala region. In recognition of his research, Markovitz was awarded a doctorship in Prehistory by the University of Vienna and was appointed professor of Prehistory and Geography in Paris.

A direct follow-up of Markovitz’ research activities in Greece were the excavations of R. Stampfuss in the Seidi cave of Kopais and those of L. Reisch in the Kefalari cave of the Argolid, which brought to light Upper Palaeolithic habitattional horizons. Vladimir Milojcic (1918-1978)

German prehistorian. Professor of Prehistory and Director of the institute of Prehistory and Protohistory at Heidelberg University in Germany. He taught at the Universities of Munich and Saarbruken, and from 1958 at the University of Heidelberg. From 1953 he headed the German expedition in Thessaly, Greece, where he excavated a large number of Neolithic and Bronge Age sites. Milojcic was among the first to support the thesis that the Balkan peninsula represented, in chronological and cultural terms, the interim zone between the Near East and Central Europe. His scholarly works include: Chronologie der Jungeren Steinzeit Mittel- und Sudosteuropas, Berlin 1953, Hauptergebnisse der deutschen Ausgrabungen in Thessaiien 1953-1958, Bonn 1961, Das prakeramische Neolithikum sowie die Tier- und Pfianzenreste, Bonn 1965. He was also the editor of the series Beitrage zum Ur- und Frugeschichtlichen Archaologie des Mittelmeer-Kulturaumes.

Milojcic promoted research in Thessaly’s Palaeolithic period through a series of surface surveys of archaeological character, which was combined with the systematic study of the remains in the Thessalic plain sediments, by H. Schneider and D. Jung, and that of its fauna, by J. Boessneck. The conclusions were published in a classic work, for the Palaeolithic period of Greece, entitled Paiaolithikum urn Larissa in Thessaiien, Bonn 1965.

Hugo Obermaier (1877-1946)

German clergyman and archaeologist. He studied Theology and Prehistoric Archaeology at the University of Vienna, where he submitted his doctoral thesis “Beitrage zur Kenntnis des Quartars in den Pyrenaen” (Contribution to the Knowledge of the Quarternary in the Pyrenees). From 1909 until 1911 he taught Prehistory in Vienna and from 1910 until 1914 at the Institut de Paleontologie Humaine in Paris, where Breuil was also a professor. During the next twenty years, he devoted himself to field research in many European countries, among which Spain: Italy and Switzerland. In 1939 he was appointed professor of Prehistory at the University of Freiburg in Switzerland. His publications include: Der Mensch der Vorzeit, Berlin 1912, Fossil Man in Spain, London 1924, Las pinturas rupestres de !os Allaedores de Tromon, Teruel, Madrid 1927 (with Breuil).

Aris Poulianos (1924)

Greek anthropologist. Born on the island of Ikaria, he studied at the University of New York and was awarded his Ph.D. by the University of Moskow. He has been an active Member of New York’s Academy of Sciences, since 1987. As a member of the Executive Committee of the University of Patras (1965-1967), he founded the first Faculty of Biology in a Greek university. During his stay in Moscow, he worked mainly in the Faculty of the Origins of Races at the Institute of Anthropology: of the Academy of Sciences. He is the author of five books and numerous anthropological publications. He has formulated substantial theories on the biological continuity of Greece’s population and he is the founder of the Anthropological Society of Greece (with many annexes throughout the country). He is a member of the Permanent International Council of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences. He founded the Anthropology Museum of Petralona, which houses exhibits from all over Greece. He publishes the journal Anthropos. He carries out Palaeoantropological excavations in Halkidiki (Petralona: where the well-known ossified human skull was found, Nea Triglia, Vrasta, etc.), in Western Macedonia (Pentavrysso, Perdika, Ptolemais, etc.), surface surveys throughout Greece since 1965, as well as human measurements of individuals, ranging from the Pacific (Ainou) to the Atlantic Ocean (Basques). Elisabeth Schmid (1912-1994)

German prehistorian and academic. She studied Prehistory, Geology, Palaeontology and Ancient Zoology at the University of Freiburg in Germany. From 1937 until 1962 she taught at the Universities of Bonn, Cologne and Freiburg. In 1960 she was appointed professor of Prehistory at the University of Basle and in 1976 she was the first woman to become Rector of the Shool of Natural Sciences. In 1953 she founded, with pofessor R. Laur-Belart, the Prehistory Research Centre, in collaboration with the Swiss Archaeological Society. Together with her teaching and research activities, she worked for the establishment of a permanent exhibition of Prehistory at the Basle Ethnographic Museum, and was an active member of the Swiss Prehistoric Society. Her Atlas of Animal Bones, Amsterdam 1972, is her most well-known publication.

Schmid broadened the horizons of Prehistoric research by using the Natural Sciences and especially Enzymatology and Ancient Zoology, a pioneering approach at the time. Moreover, the purpose of her excavation trench at Seidi was, as she herself emphasised, “… die noch offenen Fragen vor allern der Sediments und der Fauna zu beantworten”. Avgoustos Sordinas (1927)

Professor emeritus of the Ionian University. He studied Anthropology and Prehistoric Archaeology at Harvard University, where he submitted his doctoral thesis: “The Prehistory of the Ionian Islands” (1968). During the years 1958 to 1960 he carried out research on the Midpalaeolithic period (Sangoan) in West Africa, under Oliver Davies of the Legon University in Ghana. From 1961 till 1964 he specialised in France’s Upper Palaeolithic period, under professor Hallam Movius (Harvard University’s excavations in Abri Pataud, in the Dordogne). As professor of Anthropology, at Memphis State University in the USA, he undertook various research expeditions, e.g. in Greece (Palaeontology and Archaeology of Pleistocene, as well as studies on the material equipment of traditional agricultural groups), in Colombian-Ecuador (Prehistoric Archaeology), on lake Titikaka (the material equipment of the Oury tribe) and on other locations. Works: investigations of the Prehistory of Corfu during 1964-1966, Contributions to the Archaeology of Saudi Arabia, The Papyrus Boat: A Primitive Navigational Craft in Western Corfu, and others.

Rudolf Stampfuss (1904-)

German archaeologist. He studied Archaeology at Tubingen. In 1928 he was appointed Director of the Museum of Duisburg and in 1935 he took over the teaching of Prehistory at the Paedagogic Academy of Dortmund. He published numerous texts on Germany’s Prehistory and Protohistory. His publications are, to a large extent, archaeological studies of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, mainly in the Rhineland. Dimitris Theocharis (1919-1977)

Greek archaeologist, prehistorian and academic, one of the pioneers in the Remotest Prehistory of Greece. He studied at the University of Thessaloniki and did post-graduate work at the University of Heidelberg (1958-1960) in Germany. He continued his studies at the Musee de I’Homme in Paris, at Cambridge University and the Institute of Archaeology in London. As Ephor of Antiquities in Thessaly, he organised the new exhibition in the Museum of Volos. In collaboration with his wife, archaeologist M. Theochari, the then assistant professor G. Hourmouziades and a team of German archaeologists under V. Milojcic, he promoted research in Thessaly’s Prehistoric age, excavating numerous Neolithic sites and extending Sesklo’s excavations, thus continuing Ch. Tsounta’s work. He taught at the University of Thessaloniki during the last years of his life. Theocharis is the first Greek archaeologist to take a direct and effective interest in the study of the Prehistoric period, by undertaking surface surveys and by publishing his findings on sets of stone implements. In his texts a scientific, descriptive terminology in Greek was tested for the first time. Among his publications we single out two monumental works: The Dawn of Thessalic Prehistory, Volos 1967, and Neolithic Greece, Athens 1971.