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by Archaeology Newsroom

Attic caves dedicated to the god Pan

Caves and natural sanctuaries dedicated to Pan, a deity of nature, are located far from urban sanctuaries.

1. The Oenoe Β cave, Marathon, Attica, consists of ten halls overloaded with stalactitic and stalagmitic material. The archaeologic finds belong to the Prehistoric, Classic, Roman and Byzantine period.

2. The cave located in the 5-Ω side of Parnis mountain is called “Pan’s cavern” or “cavern of the lamps” due to the multitude of lamps found in it. lt consists of two halls that have produced a significant number of inscriptions, dedicatory reliefs, etc.

3. The cave of Pan on the NW slope of the Acropolis hill is adjacent to three major ones dedicated to Αροllο. It was assigned to the cult of Pan after the Marathon battle in 490 BC.

4. The cave “Nymphaeon”, on Mount Penteli is small but important since two singificant dedicatory reliefs were found there. The one, dating back to 350 BC, has a representantion of Pan, the Nymphs, Hermes and of three quarry men, the dedicators. The other, dating forty years later than the first, exhibits a scene taking place in a cave.

5. The cave of Pan at Daphni, Attica is located close to the Byzantine monastery. The arcaeological finds are not important but serνe as terminus for its dating: the cult performed in the cave ranges from the Prehistoric period to the end of the 5th century BC. 6. The cave “Nympholiptou” at Vari, Attica is located high οn Hymittos mountain. The finds date from the 6th to the 2nd century BC, although the coins of 307-408 ΑD found in it indicate a resumption of use after a gap of four to five centuries.

7. The cave of Megara, yet virtually unexcavated, has produced a few surνey finds, which date to the classic era.