This article deals with Rubens’s bucolic landscapes in connection with Theocritus bucolic Idylls. First, the relevance of their content and style is presented, which becomes obvious through an attentive reading of the Idylls and a meticulous description of the bucolic paintings. Then, the various art history and literature theories concerning the bucolic repertoire are examined and their relation to Rubens’s bucolic creations and to Theocritus bucolic poetry is demonstrated. Finally, an important issue is raised, concerning the relation between the artistic production and its theoretical evaluation and interpretation.