The only form of writing in Scandinavia, during the years of the Byzantine Empire, were the runes, official inscriptions on stone, wood or bone, written in the phonetic alphabet. Some inscriptions refer to travels of the Scandinavians to Byzantium. This relation of Scandinavians, mainly with Constantinople, is also supported by the little archaeological evidence found in our days. We should hope that the archaeological excavations will reveal more findings, thus shedding light on the relation of Scandinavian mercenaries and traders with the Byzantine Empire.