The ancient monuments of Greece have served to the modern Greek state as an excellent source for the expression of its ideology. This concept, as well as the Greeks’ belief that the antique monuments were a venerated heritage, led to the foundation of an archaeological service and of a national museum on Aegina island, soon after the establishment of the Greek state. This first archaeological service, originally staffed with Independence fighters and philhellenic scientists succeeded in overcoming the post war chaos and with the help of the Archaeological Society to reach its goal, that of rescuing and restoring the antiquities and to organize a most efficient service, which, in spite of the political and financial obstacles, laid the foundations of contemporary Greek archaeology.