The present prefecture of Emathia has been continuously inhabited throughout prehistory. The data from the excavation and survey research carried out in the prefecture during the last decade are summarized and presented in this article. Six settlements are inhabited in Emathia during the Early Neolithic, the most representative example being Nea Nikomedeia, which was excavated by R. Rodden in the beginning of the 60s. The locations used in this peri¬od are either tells or level ground on the hills. The available data for the Middle Neolithic are not sufficient enough for the time being. In the Late and Final Neolithic the number of settlement is rapidly increasing, thus not only tells and level ground but also caves are inhabited. During the Early Bronze Age the number of locations are decreasing, probably owing to ecological and financial factors. In the Late Bronze Age the locations inhabited are limited, since, as it seems, some population groups move to semi-mountainous areas, a procedure which continues in the Early Iron Age as well.