Paleolithic research in the Ionian Islands was started in the 1960s by Professor Aug. Sordinas who excavated the rock shelter Grava on Corfu and located many open-air sites on Corfu and Zakynthos. G. Kavadias surveyed later Paleolithic stone implements in the Phiskardo area, northern Kephallonia, as did G.A. Cubuk in the district of Nea Skala, in the south-eastern part of the island. A similar survey was carried out in Lefkada by A. Douzougli-Zachou. Recently, new sites have been located in Zakynthos.

Human habitation in the Ionian Islands is assigned to the Middle and Late Paleolithic era. However, certain data from the geological research in SW Corfu is probably indicative of earlier habitation.