The article deals with the interpretation of the terms “traditional” and “artistic” dance, which express the “traditional” and “modern” society, respectively. The differences between he two kinds of dance expression are also stressed, which, according to the authors opinion, do not simply constitute varieties of form, but also dissimilarities of content and refer equally to the process of dance creation and dance performance. Furthermore, the social as well as the aesthetic aspects of dance are examined since the are considered to be interrelated. Special reference is made to the more or less hybrid phenomenon of the revival of traditional dance through the ideological-cultural framework and the institutions of modern society. Finally, the problems rising from the coexistence of these dance expressions are discussed aiming at a more elucidating interpretation of dance in our days.