The first human settlement in Attica dates back to the early years of the Prehistoric era.

The earliest traces of inhabitation can be found in the vicinity of Ramnous, Marathon, Raphina, Loutsa, Vravrona and Lavrion. Furthermore, Anavyssos, Laghonissi and then Athens as well as various sites alongside the rivers of Ilissos and Kifissos are areas which have supplied us with adequate information on human habitation during the Late Neolithic period.

The oldest settlement lies on the Nea Makri sea-shore under the present town. Its houses, large and well built, were equipped with storage rooms for the safekeeping of goods. The inhabitants were peasants, hunters and seamen who managed to maintain mutual relations with Sterea, Thessaly and the Cyclades. During the Proto-Helladic period the population increased and new settlements were created. In the Mycenean era, the entire area of Attica was inhabited and followed the development of the main Mycenean centers of the rest of Greece. By the end of the Mycenean world many settlements in Attica were abandoned or diminished, thus paving the way for the rise and dominance of the city of Athens.