Ethnoarchaeological research carried out in Thrace proved that ethnographic observations can facilitate archaeological explanation. The area of mountainous Rhodopi, north of the town of Komotini, is very rich in ethnographic material mainly because traditional societies, such as the Pomaks have lived there for centuries. Although the situation has changed dramatically in the last sixty years, the remains of these isolated communities are still apparent and significant. The main ethnoarchaeological work took place around two deserted villages in the gorge of the Komposatos River. The research was focused on the reconstruction of the history, environment and economy of the area in the last hundred years, by interviewing peasants and collecting information from various sources. Our aim was to draw a framework in which valid hypotheses can be formulated concerning the historical and economic processes that have affected the evolution of the traditional societies of the area. Moreover, we proceeded to put forward hypotheses on how these ethnographic observations can be used as analogies for explaining archaeological concepts.