The article is based on the study of ancient inscriptions, ancient Greek literature and the author’s case study in the field of ancient technology. The interesting conclusion of this research effort is that the ancient societies, even in the prehistoric age, had set standards with very strict specifications as regards the quality of a considerable range of goods either produced or for sale in the market: from metals and their alloys to foods and crops. There also existed a very small organized public quality control not only of products but also of construction works, of the public sector in particular. The various standards and mechanisms for the quality control of products as well as the sanctions imposed on whomever had violated the rules and standards formed an articulated state mechanism, capable of protection the consumer and safe guarding his interests.