The thirty- year long excavations that took place in Northeastern Turkmenistan, at Kara Kum, one of the largest deserts on earth, proved that one of the oldest centres of human civilization existed there four thousand years ago, by the banks of the Amu Darya river on the Murgab Delta. As it seems, a period of intense drought followed the beginning of the xerothermic era towards the end of 2000 BC. This forced tribes coming from the various centres of the ancient world and especially from northern Syria to abandon their lands in search of a new homeland rich in water and fertile soil, essential to their rural way of life. After crossing plains, mountains and the Iranian deserts of Dasht-i-Lut and Sasht-i- Margo they at last reached the oases of Eastern Iran and the regions close to the Koppeh Dagh mountains and the Murgab Delta valley. These foreign tribes settled and founded a new civilization in this fertile land where the Murgab river flowed.