Upbringing, the training and education, that is, of its future citizens is probably the most important institution in ancient Sparta. From antiquity and until today the system of Spartan upbringing has closely and almost exclusively been connected with notions, such as obedience, patriotism, the citycamp, absolute loyalty and the perfect soldier; as well as with the peculiar way the Spartan upbringing was applied and excercised. The Doric origin of Spartans has served as the starting point of such approaches and interpretations. The version, according to which the Spartan upbringing was but a perfect school of military training, a most effective machine exclussively producing soldiers derives, in our opinion, from two of the most celebrated, ancient theorists of education: Plato (Laws) and Aristotle (Politics). Our intention here is not to dispute this interpretation, but to point out that this perfect “school” was essentially and primarily training and educating Spartan citizens, not only soldiers. We attempt to approach the Spartan upbringing as a procedure aiming to the formation and completion of the identity of the Spartan citizen. Through the various phases of this procedure the Spartan youths could build up their social and political consciousness and awareness.