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Articles: Survey
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Fig. 1. View of the fortification wall of the ancient citadel.
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by Ξένη Αραπογιάννη

Remains of olive presses in ancient Thouria of Messenia

Documenting of excavation evidence remains to be done

While touring the region known as ‟Hellenika” in ancient Thouria, on the flat top of the hill at the site of the ancient city, sections of distinctive stone members originating from ancient olive presses (note 1) were located in privately owned olive groves.

Before describing these architectural members, the ancient process of producing olive oil will be presented, on which there is abundant, detailed Greek and foreign bibliography, while valuable information is to be drawn from the ancient authors Cato and Columella (note 2).

Stages of oil production in antiquity are the following: a) Cultivation of the olive tree and harvesting the olives. b) Crushing of olives to produce the pulp. c) Compression of pulp for production of the liquid which is collected while the olive stones are discarded and d) Separation of liquid into pure olive oil stored in jars or reservoirs and impure plant liquids unsuitable for consumption.

For centuries, all through antiquity, two techniques were used for the crushing of the olive (note 3): a) the trapetum (tropeion) and b) the mola olearia (olive mill).

The trapetum (note 4) consists of a large stone basin (mortarium) in the middle of which a small cylindrical column is attached (milarium). On top of the column is a carved rectangular tenon on which an iron pin (columella) can be adjusted. A horizontal wooden shaft, supported by its middle on the pin, bears on either end a lens shaped mill stone (orbes), flat on its inner side and curved on the outer (note 5).The two millstones are partially sunk in a stone basin, that is filled with olives. A double rotational movement of the millstones, done either by humans or animals, is achieved by using the protruding handle formed on one of the two edges of the horizontal shaft penetrating the millstones. Due to the gap between the millstones and the basin the olives are crushed but not their stones (note 6) (drawing 1).

The trapetum must have been introduced to Greece in Hellenistic times and continues to be used throughout the whole Byzantine era (note 7).

The type of olive mill known as mola olearia is dominant from the time of the Romans (1st c. BC to 1st c. AD) and develops over time, remaining in use up to and during the 20th century (note 8). It usually consists of one or sometimes two cylindrical millstones pierced by a horizontal shaft which is attached to an upright beam. The millstones revolve round the vertical beam on a flat surface where the olives are crushed. When the olive mill operates indoors the vertical beam is fixed to the ceiling by a permanent devise. When the oil mill works out doors, then the vertical shaft is replaced by a thick, tall pin adjusted to the central circular or square tenon growing out of a shallow stone basin. The pin pierces the horizontal wooden shaft on whose one end the mill stone is attached, while the other free protruding edge is used to rotate the olive mill by hand or using some animal (note 9) (drawing 2).

The crushing of the olive paste was done in the presses basically by following the use of weight as a method which evolved over time (note 10). The olive presses consist of a stone base which is square,circular or ellipsoid and surrounded by a circular groove (canalis rotunda) ending in an outflow channel with usually a protruding funnel. Cloth sacks with the olive paste are stacked on this base that is on a raised level. The liquid coming from the compression of the sacks is collected in vessels or reservoirs that are placed under the funnel. The simplest and oldest manner of compression was done with the use of stone weights hung from the end of a wooden lever, whose one edge was permanently fixed to a recess in the wall (note 11) (drawing 3). In later Hellenistic times a winch was used as a weight lifting device, while in the Roman era the screw is introduced on a stone base with distinctive tenons (γαλεάγρα) (note 12). To facilitate the extraction of oil, the oil pulp was moistened during compression with plenty of warm water. The oil was separated into eitherstone or clay containers, or reservoirs on whose bottom was a cavity for the sediment of plant fluids to settle, while the oil floated, due to gravity (note 13).

“Hellenika” in Thouria: The basin of the olive press

Inside the olive grove of Nikitas Krikkas, situated on the east side of the hill of ancient Thouria, a short distance south east of the surviving part of the citadel’s fortification wall (fig. 1), a large slab like rock is visible with one broad surface carved and well polished. The rock’s rear surface is rough, the boulder is vertically wedged in the hill side, hiding most of its lower part which is covered with soil. A day’s work was required to reveal the rock’s entire length. The slab like rock’s full length is 2.10m x 1.40m wide x 0.40m thick. On its upper end, visible from the start as it protruded from the soil, is a carved, shallow, round cavity with a diameter of 0.95-0.98m. In its centre there is a cylindrical knob, 0.10m high and with a diameter of 0.35m. The cavity surrounding the central knob is 0.30m wide. One part of the cavity’s circumference is missing, because of damage sustained by the visible upper end of the rock.

Even though it is shallow, the carved hollow resembles the basin of a olive mill of the mola olearia type, where the olives were crushed using a cylindrical mill stone rotating in the basin with the help of a horizontal wooden shaft. Because of the damaged central column, we do not know the way the vertical shaft was fixed or the pin on which the horizontal wooden rotation beam would be adjusted (note 14) (figs. 2, 3, 4).

It is, however, clear that the olive mill operated in the open air, since the natural conglomerate rock, which offered itself to this use being very hard and durable, had been appropriately carved (note 15). The vertical position the bulky carved rock was found in is problematic (note 16). While investigating the immediate environment and mainly the level formed above the vertically wedged boulder, a natural formation of the soil was observed with a layer of massive slab like conglomerate rocks, similar to it (fig. 5). It is therefore probable that the section of the carved rock – olive press, situated on the ‟brow” of the slope, got broken off from the network of other rocks on the flat surface above and slid down the hill side. Besides, the phenomenon of landslides from the hill top of the ancient city of Thouria down its east and west slopes, is a phenomenon that has been observed on a great scale in antiquity and continues at times to the present day (note 17).

The question therefore, is whether the landslide took place before the olive mill started to operate, in which case its construction was not completed, or if the rock was severed while the mill was already in use.

The period during which the rock fell also remains unknown.

By removing the loose, light brown soil covering the lower invisible part of the carved boulder, quite a number of black glazed shards from Hellenistic times were collected, as well as sections of well fired roof tiles that may have come from an ancient building located on the hill slope, a stone’s throw away from the carved rock. A section of wall is visible from this building, facing N-S, carefully constructed and consisting of a double row of rectangular stone blocks, built according to the isodomic masonry system (fig. 6).

The above facts are in agreement that the fall of the rock occurred either before the Hellenistic era or during the same time the adjacent building was constructed. In this case it could be assumed that the reason for this building’s abandonment in antiquity was the landslide. Without the necessary excavation survey, however, it is impossible to arrive at any safe chronological conclusions.

“Hellenikon Monastery”: A section of the compression base (olive press)

Inside the property of Ioannis Filiopoulos, situated a short distance south west of the Hellenikon monastery, a stone compression base was located on an elevated piece of ground.

The base was being used a second time round in a modern dry stone wall with a N-S direction, that sets the boundaries on the farm’s east side. It is vertically placed so that its upper surface can be seen on the wall’s facade (fig. 7).

The base is square, made of grayish limestone (note 18). The one side which is 1.12m long, is intact, with the other two partially surviving sides measuring 0.87 and 0.34 m respectively. The fourth side on which must have been the channel for the liquid’s outflow is entirely missing (fig. 8). Therefore we do not know if there was a funnel in the middle of the missing side, or if the oil produced from the compression of the olives was channeled towards the collection point, along a simple outflow canal. The base is 0.25m thick. Its round section surrounded by a groove 0.06m wide and 0.04-0.095m deep, has an inner diameter of 0.76m and an outer of 0.88m. On all the circumference of the round groove there are short but quite deep vertical incisions. The latter facilitate the oil to spread in the circular groove during the pressing of the olives which have been previously crushed (figs. 9-10).

It is evident that the olive press is not in its place, while there are no traces, on the surface at least, of an olive press having been installed in the vicinity. Nevertheless, because of its great weight, one should exclude its having been transported over a long distance for it to be used solely as a structural element in a modern dry stone wall (fig. 11). Therefore the search for the ancient olive press should not take place far from the fallen olive compression base. Surface survey in the olive press’ greater area, unearthed Hellenistic ceramics which however are spread across the whole site of the ancient city (note 19).

The Asklepeion of Ancient Thouria: “Panagitsa” Site

During excavations at the Asklepeion in Ancient Thouria (note 20) (fig. 12), at the ‟Panagitsa” site, fragments of surviving stone elements were occasionally found ,used a second time round as building material on later stone walls (note 21). Their poor state of preservation, however, does not allow them to be identified with certainty with any particular installation for olive processing. Besides, according to excavation data, it is known that at this spot there was a wine press of the Early Christian era (6th-7th c.) to which could be attributed the stone equipment originating from some workshop (fig. 13). Also found scattered around in the same place as the ancient temple were large ceramic jars, from the same period as the wine press, to be used for the storage of liquid or solid goods (note 22).

The absence, to date, of remains of ancient installations for olive processing in Messenia cannot be explained by scholars, particularly in a place that has been producing oil par excellence over time; at least from the Mycenaean era to the present day (note 23).

Data available to us on the processing of olives and olive presses in Messenia was almost non-existent. This was probably due to the lack of sufficient surface surveys on the extensive archaeological sites of the district, most of which remain unknown and have never been excavated.

The remains of ancient olive presses located in the ancient town of Thouria are the first reliable witnesses of olive production and olive processing in Messenia during antiquity.

Documentation remains to be done of excavation evidence given us by the site’s surface survey, in the hope of uncovering a completed olive press installation in ancient Thouria.

 

Xeni Arapogianni

Dr of Archaeology

 

Appendix: Olive presses from antiquity to the mid 20th century

From antiquity to the present day the stages in processing olives into olive oil have been the following: a) friction or crushing of the olives, b) squeezing out of the olive pulp and c) separation of the oil from its other ingredients. During the first stage, the crushing-breaking of the olives is carried out so as to subsequently extract the olive oil by squeezing it out (note 24).

The beginnings of olive cultivation in Greece can be placed in the Early Bronze Age (3rd millennium BC), while its intense, systematic cultivation occurs in the Mycenaean era (1680-1100 BC) (note 25).

Initially, the crushing of the olives is done by hand in big stone basins, using a round stone to exert pressure.The olive pulp is extracted with the use of presses. These are either circular or rectangular stone compression bases. A lever is used to put pressure on the olive pulp, i.e. a wooden beam fixed to arecess in the wall/hollow of a rock or some other structure, on whose free end some type of force is used, either muscular or with the use of stone weights (note 26).

Between the Late Bronze Age and the Classical Period, no substantial changes are to be found in the production of oil. Gradually there is an increase in the weight of the beams in the presses and the stone bases acquire a circular groove ending in an efflux (note 27).

One of the most important innovations is to be seen during the Hellenistic era: this is the rotating mill, known as the trapetum, used to crush the olives. This type continues to be used right through the Byzantine period. During Roman times, another type is also created, namely the olive mill or mola olearia. This continues to exist with various modifications till the mid 20th century. For compression, olive presses used methods similar to ones in prehistoric installations. In Hellenistic times, the winch was used as a weight lifting device, while in Roman times the screw was introduced, mounted on a stone base with distinctive sockets (γαλεάγρα) and a circular groove for the liquid to flow off (note 28).

In the mid Byzantine period of the 10th to 12th centuries AD, the cultivation of olives became more intense in the Peloponnese, more so in regions of Messenia during the 13th century (note 29). Regarding the technology of producing olive oil , the two known types of olive mill continued to exist, i.e. the trapetum and the mola olearia. The olive mill consists of a stable monolithic or built base, powered by humans or animals for it to move. On the bottom of the basin is an opening from which the olive pulp emerges. The prevailing press of the period is the screw mechanism. It consists of a winding, vertical, wooden cylindrical beam, placed upright on a stone mount (γαλεάγρα), which rotates on the free end of the compression lever. On the screw’s lower part is a hollow in which a small wooden beam is placed, used as a crowbar (note 30).

Olive cultivation expands during both Venetian and subsequently Turkish rule, and there is an increase of olive oil production in the Peloponnese, which improves oil processing installations (note 31). The mechanical parts of the olive press include the mill, consisting of one to three millstones placed in a flat basin. Power for crushing olives is still supplied by humans or animals. The presses are wooden, of the wooden screw type.

In the 19th century, the number of olive trees increase in Greece as well as the production of olive oil (note 32). This however does not apply to the means of its production where human or animal power continues as a method and likewise the use of various types of mills and presses.

An early method of manually powered olive mill that survived in the Peloponnese was that of the cylinder or Hi-Hoop (χάι-χουπ) (note 33). This was a cylindrical stone (60-70 cms high with a base diameter of 30-40 cm) and a convex or flat surface where olives were crushed with recurring movements (note 34). Compression of the olive pulp was done in wooden, manually powered presses with a tub or with the feet (note 35).

The most common method used in the Peloponnese, dating from the mid 19th to the early 20th century, were animal powered mills divided into three types depending on the size and number of millstones (note 36).

The animal powered mills were long, one room stone buildings with a pitched roof. They usually had storage space and a well or cistern. Indoors, apart from the basic facilities, there were stone compartments for putting the olives and feeding the animals, as well as space for storing olive oil in jars. On one side of the building, a circular stone threshing floor was built considerably above ground level, for the grinding of the olives. The mill stones or upper stones (πανωλίθια) were placed on the threshing floor’s top part. These were joined together by an iron shaft which went through another vertical wooden one. The vertical shaft rested on the centre of the lower stone (κατωλίθι) on two thick pieces of wood fixed to the roof of the olive press. One more wooden shaft was connected with the vertical shaft, tilted slightly towards the ground, to which the animal was tied.The mill stones were made of granite, with a diameter of 1-1.20m and a width of 0.30m.

The ground olives were collected in a wooden tub and then the pulp was put into haircloth sacks (τσαντίλες). The sacks were placed with great care in the press, for the next stage of compression. At the end of the 19th century the wooden presses (note 37) were replaced by metallic ones. Theseweremadeinmetal workshops of Attica and Piraeus and there were various types (note 38).

Water mills were rare in Messenia. The use of water power for the operation of olive presses begins in the Post Byzantine period and becomes wide spread in the 19th century. There were two categories of water powered olive presses: Mills with either a horizontal or vertical wheel. In the Desylla region of Messenia, a well preserved water powered mill survives with a horizontal wheel (note 39).

In the late 19th and early 20th century engine powered olive presses, the so called factories, made their appearance. These included steam powered, machine powered and hydraulic mills. During this period, a great change occurred in reducing the time of processing and crushing the olives and extracting the oil. The screw press was changed to a hydraulic one and the animal powered mill was redesigned and reinforced so as to accommodate both greater loads and the straps for engine power. Basic changes were made to the threshing floor and the mill stones, the former being made completely of iron and the latter of a harder stone to cope with the pressures. Steampoweredolivepressesweredominanttill 1925, when they were replaced by petrol engines. After 1947,steam engines started to be mass produced in the place of petrol engines (note 40). After 1960, most engine powered olive presses in the Peloponnese were changed into ones powered by electricity.

 

Yiannis Kakouros

Archaeologist

NOTES
1. The places were pointed out to us by Mr Antonis Tsanglis, former keeper of the Thouria Archaeological site, who comes from the region and systematically cultivates olive and fig trees on his property. The architectural members of the olive presses were on the surface and so only the soil partially covering them needed to be cleared away, without some excavation to follow. On the archaeological site of Ancient Thouria see Arapogianni X.: «Η αρχαία Θουρία κατά τα νέα ανασκαφικά δεδομένα» [Ancient Thouria according to new excavation data], Μεσσηνιακά Χρονικά [Messenian Chronicles], vol. IV, Athens 2008-2009, pp. 9-14; «Αρχαία Θουρία, η πρώτη πρωτεύουσα της Μεσσηνίας» [Ancient Thouria, the first capital of Messenia], Proceedings of IVth Conference of Messenian Studies (Kalamata 8-11 October 2010), Athens 2014, pp. 215-234.
2. Cato, De Agricultura, 20 ff.; Columella XII, 52.9; and Γεωπονικά ΙΧ 17.1 and ΙΧ 13.3. Detailed bibliography by S. Hadjisavvas, Η ελιά και το λάδι στον αρχαίο Ελληνικό κόσμο [Olive and oil in the ancient Greek world], Piraeus Bank Cultural Foundation, Athens 2008.
3. Initially the crushing of olives was done by hand with the use of a stone cylinder moved backwards and forwards on a flat stone surface see Hadjisavvas, op. cit., fig. 53. Extremely informative representations of the oil production process in antiquity take place at the Museum of the Olive and Greek Olive Oil in Sparta.
4. The term ‟trapitis” sometimes used for this type of olive press is a more appropriate term when applied to a person in a wine press rather than an olive press.
5. For the parts of the trapetum, it is suggested that the respective Greek terminology be used: trochoi (τροχοί) for millstones, kope (κώπη) for the wooden shaft and polos (πόλος) for the iron pin, see P. Faklaris, «Ελαιοτρόπιον. Οι ελληνικές ονομασίες των επί μέρους στοιχείων μιας ελληνικής εφεύρεσης» [Elaiotropion. Greek terms for the individual components of a Greek invention], Proceedings of Symposium «Olives and oil in space and time», Preveza 24th-26th November 2000, Theofaneios School, Publications of the Hellenic Folklore Research Centre, no. 20, Athens 2003, pp. 35-44.
6. Cato had already referred to the trapetum in antiquity, while a detailed description of the function of this type of oil mill with a complete representation in drawings is given by Drachmann A.G., Ancient Oil Mills and Presses, Copenhagen 1932, p. 46 ff.
7. It is not clear when this type of olive press first appeared. To date, available archaeological data does not give sufficient evidence on its dating to the end of the 5th and the beginning of the 4th c. BC. It is more likely its use began from the 2nd half of the 4th c. BC to the end of the 3rd c. BC, like that of ancient Argilos in the region of Amphipolis and the olive press on a farm in Malta from early Hellenistic times. P. Faklaris-V. Stamatopoulou, «Η ελιά και το λάδι στην αρχαία Ελλάδα» [Olives and oil in ancient Greece], Proceedings of the International Conference of the Hellenic Folklore Research Centre, Athens 2003, p. 41, noteσ 36 and 37.
8. Numerous archaeological findings show that, in the east Mediterranean, the molea olearia type with variations was in use since the Hellenistic period, see Hadjisavvas, op. cit., p. 65.
9. Drachmann, op. cit., pp. 42-43, fig. 9. White K.D., Farm Equipment of the Roman World, London 1975, pp. 228-229. Thompson H.A. / Wycherley R.E., The Athenian Agora, XIV, 1972, p. 214, fig. 54, table 105b.
10. On olive presses see Drachmann, op. cit., pp. 50-121. Hadjisavvas S., Olive oil processing in Cyprus from the Bronze Age to the Byzantine Period, Nicosia 1992 (SIMA XCIX 10), pp. 21-74 and White, op. cit., pp. 230-232. Hadji-Vallianou D., «Ελαιοκαλλιέργεια και ελαιοπαραγωγή στην Κρήτη, Ελαιοσοδεία» [Olive cultivation and Olive production in Crete, Olive harvesting], Μελέτες για τον πολιτισμό της ελιάς [Studies of the culture of the olive]. Appendix in the Yearbook of the Academy of Athens’ Hellenic Folklore Research Centre, vol. 29-30 (1999-2003). Publications of the Hellenic Folklore Research Centre 22, Athens 2004, pp. 93-98.
11. The oldest depiction of an oil press with stone weights is on a black-figure skyphos of the 6th c. BC, on display in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. For a detailed description of the compression mechanism with the use of stone weights see Hadjisavvas, op. cit., p. 42, fig. 26, pp. 71-73, figs. 64-65 and pp. 76-78, figs. 67-69.
12. Pikoulas G.A., Δρόμοι του λαδιού στην Ανατολική και Νότια Πελοπόννησο κατά την Αρχαιότητα [Oil routes in the east and south Peloponnese in Antiquity], Piraeus Bank Cultural Foundation, 2006, p. 7, drawings 4-5, depiction of an oil press with a winch and screw, from Drachmann, op. cit., pp. 50-121.
13. Distinctive separating flasks have been found that bear a funnel on their lower part, slightly above the base. The impure plant fluids flowed from the funnel’s opening and being heavier settled on the bottom, while the pure oil was collected on the flask’s upper part. Separating flasks with an opening in their base were found in an olive press in Praisos, Crete (2nd c. BC), Bosanquet R.O., «Excavations at Praisos», BSA 8 (1961-1962), pp. 264-265, fig. 31 and in Cyprus. Hadjisavvas, op. cit., pp. 75-76, figs. 53, 144, 146. The separation process was the same in reservoirs, which if double, pure oil overflowing from the one was channeled into the other by a groove on the reservoirs’ rim, see Hadjisavvas, op. cit., p. 79, fig. 70.
14. Hadjisavvas, op. cit., pp. 65 and 67, figs. 59-60. Two similar basins (mortaria) have been found in Aghia Kyriake at Tourkovrysi in Nemea, while on the rock in the location of Pyrgos, Heliopoulayika in Nemea an olive press mortarium has been carved, see Pikoulas, op. cit., p. 13. Likewise, two carved oil press bases were found on the north east side of the ancient city of Anthene in Arcadia , ibid, p. 20.
15. Pikoulas (op. cit., p. 8) mentions that in the Peloponnese he has located olive presses, mortaria, in arid as well as places difficult to access, actually carved in a rock, so as to make them impossible to transfer. The practice of carving installations for oil production in a rock was already known since the Bronze Age ad is a common phenomenon. Hadjisavvas, op. cit., p. 30, mentions that ‟primitive installations carved in the rock for the production of oil have been found in various parts of Israel”.
16. In the Peloponnese and Mainland Greece not many organized installations for oil production have come to light before the 4th c. BC, while most scattered remains of olive presses have been moved from their original place so they cannot supply clear information on their precise use.
17. The landslide of the overlying rocks and their falling on the buildings was the reason the ancient Asclepeion, excavated on the west side of the hill of ancient Thouria, was abandoned (4th-1st c. BC), Arapogianni X. «Θουρία», ΕΡΓΟΝ 2014, p. 15. A geological study was made of this phenomenon, in which it is confirmed that: ‟The most important cases of mechanical instability are due to pieces of the conglomerate rock mass becoming violently detached from the brow of the high slope east of the archaeological site and their rolling or sliding down into the greater area as well as the archaeological site”. Dr L. Polymenakos, Τεχνογεωλογική μελέτη για την αντιμετώπιση βραχοπτώσεων στο χώρο του Ασκληπιείου Αρχαίας Θουρίας Μεσσηνίας [Technogeological study for dealing with rock falls at the site of the Asklepeion in Ancient Thouria in Messenia], Athens 2015, p. 26.
18. The rectangular stone base of an olive press and wheels from Olynthos have been dated to the 1st half of the 4th c. BC, which is doubtful, since the dating is not supported by the excavation data of the site, see Faklaris-Stamatopoulou, op. cit., pp. 40 and 42, fig. 12.
19. A similar square olive press has been found in Mycenae, dating from Hellenistic times, as well as in Eretria and Delos, see Hadjisavvas, op. cit., p. 84, fig. 77, p. 88, fig. 83 and p. 90, fig. 85 and 87, while the square olive press from Sparta is quite worn, see Pikoulas, op. cit., p. 20, fig. 18. In a complex of oil presses in the vicinity of the Tower of Heimarros on Naxos, dating from the Late Roman-Early Christian period, a square stone compression base was found, similar to ours, see O. Filaniotou, «Συγκρότημα ελαιοτριβείων στον Πύργο του Χειμάρρου στη Νάξο» [Complex of olive presses at the Heimarros Tower on Naxos], Proceedings of the Conference: Olives and oil in space and time, Publications of the Hellenic Folklore Research Centre, 20, Athens 2003, p. 75, fig. 4. In a square Roman oil press from the Athens Agora, the round groove ends in a funnel on the stone’s one corner, while a rectangular compression base and remains of a press have been located, incorporated in the auditorium of the Theatre of Dionysus, see Hadjisavvas, op. cit., pp.111 and 116, figs. 116 and 123-124. It is possible that the section of the right angle of a very worn piece of sandstone, bearing the traces of an egg shaped groove on its one broad surface, may belong to part of a square oil press. The surviving dimensions of the two sides of the corner are the following: 0.42x0.38m, while the largest dimensions of the stone are 0.69x0.57m with a thickness of 0.21m. The groove’s width is 0.035m. The stone was found in 2015, almost on the surface at ‟Hellenika” in Thouria, on the north end of an ancient wall belonging to a long enclosure with a N-S direction. Arapogianni X., «Ανασκαφή Θουρίας», ΠΑΕ 2015 (forthcoming).
20. Arapogianni X., «Ανασκαφή Θουρίας», ΈΡΓΟΝ 2009-2015 and ΠΑΕ 2009-2013.
21. At the site of the Asklepeion in Ancient Thouria, the following stone members have been found, that were clearly intended to be used in a workshop: a) a long ‟counterweight” (?) of gray sandstone, with a long groove on one of its wide surfaces, but without wedge like tenons on its narrow sides (0.61m. long, 0.51-0.55m wide and 0.39m high. Width and depth of groove, 0.04-0.05m and 0.05m respectively), b) a section of a conical limestone counterweight with a pierced opening (ΟΜ 1007στ/21-8-2015), that probably comes from an ancient Ionic capital treated for a second time (maximum surviving dimensions: 0.23μ thick, 0.42- 0.35m high, 0.06m: diameter of opening), c) small cylindrical millstone (?) made of sandstone (AK 4) bearing one central tenon on each of the two round surfaces (0.24m height, 0.30-0.32m diameter, 0.08-0.12m diameter of opening, 0.75-0.12m depth of opening).
22. Arapogianni, ΕΡΓΟΝ 2012, op. cit., pp. 32-33.
23. Pikoulas, op. cit., pp. 23-26, fig. 20, points out that in the extensive archaeological site of ancient Messene, no clear remains of ancient olive presses have been located, while he mentions that in a chamber tomb in the Mycenaean necropolis at ‟Hellenika” in Antheia, the stone base was found of an oil press from a later date. Likewise, there is part of a stone compression base of unknown origin in the former Benakeio Museum of Kalamata.
24. Πίκουλας 2003, pp. 63-67.
25. The archaeological remains from Knossos are important, as are those from the Mycenaean castle at Englianos in Pylos which include sizeable storage jars and tablets inscribed in Linear B. See Γιαννοπούλου 2007α, p. 315. Πίκουλας 2003, pp. 22-23. Πίκουλας 2007, pp. 23-25. Χατζησάββας 2008, p. 43.
26. Πίκουλας 2006, pp. 6-7. Χατζησάββας 2008, pp. 28- 35.
27. Πίκουλας 2006, pp. 6-7.
28. Πίκουλας 2006, pp. 6-7.
29. Αναγνωστάκης 2007, pp. 66-67. Πανοπούλου 2007, pp. 75-86.
30. Χατζησάββας 2008, pp. 107-108, 122-125.
31. In the 17th century, specifically in 1690, there is evidence that for the first time olive trees were systematically replanted in the region of Koroni. This resulted in the well known Koroneiki (κορωνέικη) variety of olive that is still around. The systematic cultivation of olives essentially began before the mid 18th century, with most olive trees being planted in coastal regions and particularly in the south western Peloponnese. In texts by travellers we learn that in the plain of Kyparissia there were olive trees over a century old, spread as far as Kalamata. There were also olive trees in the districts of Pylos, Koroni, Methoni and on the Messenian side of Mani. Γιαννοπούλου 2007α, pp. 318-320. Πανοπούλου 2007, p. 85.
32. Γιαννοπούλου 2007α, pp. 320-322.
33. Particularly in the regions of Laconia. Γιαννοπούλου 2007b, pp. 107-108. Οικονόμου 2003, pp. 241-243.
34. This type of method covered domestic needs. Χατζησάββας 2008, pp. 59.
35. Οικονόμου 1996, p. 364, figs. 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7.
36. Λάσκαρης 2000, pp. 99-100. Γιαννοπούλου 2007, p. 108.
37. They consisted of two wooden compression plates fixed to two screws rotated by humans using a piece of cylindrical wood (lever) called the worker (εργάτης). Γιαννοπούλου 2007b, p. 110.
38. Γιαννοπούλου 2003, pp. 293-295, 470-471. Γιαννοπούλου 2007b, p. 111. Λάσκαρης 2000, pp. 103-106. Οικονόμου 1996, p. 372. Οικονόμου 2003, pp. 243-244. Ψαρράκη-Μπελεσιώτη 1978, pp. 52-53.
39. Γιαννοπούλου 2007α, pp. 322-323. Γιαννοπούλου 2007b, pp. 113-114. Λέκκα 2003, pp. 469-475.
40. Γιαννοπούλου 2007b, pp. 114-115. Λάσκαρης 2000, pp. 106-108. Οικονόμου 1996, p. 373. Οικονόμου 2003, pp. 244-245.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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