A series of evaluations and judgements has been made even since antiquity, regarding the historical background of the Homeric epic poetry. As time passed by, the relevant questions have been reinforced and related originally to the social environment of that period, which is represented in the epic, and consequently to the issue of dating its final composition, estimated about 700 BC. In this framework, Philology, Archaeology and History collaborate in a common field of research in order to define some, more or less objective, criteria for the dating of the cultural material which is reflected in the Homeric poems.