The third millennium B.C. was a period of high prime for Lemnos. The first town of Europe was founded on its land, since the island happens to be situated at the cross-roads connecting two seas -the Aegean with the Euxine Pontus- at the most critical moment of the Aegean history. Mastering the technology of fire, the Aegean society started advancing by leaps and bounds towards its emancipation and, consequently, civilization. Specialized knowledge and raw materials for the development of metallurgy in the Aegean seem to be transferred from the eastern coasts of Euxine Pontus through the Vosporus and the Hellespont straits.Thus, Lemnos functioned as the first station of import and transmission of the new technology and its products. This is attested by the archaeological finds and is also echoed by the ancient myths about Hephaestus, the Kabeiroi, the Golden Fleece and the Argonauts.