The research into the cultural course of a people and the study of its history and past decisively contribute to the understanding of its specific physiognomy and identity. The architectural heritage records, in the most explicit and legible way, this cultural course, therefore its protection is universally considered as indisputable. This article deals with the concept of monument and its significance for the formation of a city’s physiognomy as well as with the value of the architectural monuments, being an essential part of the cultural heritage of a place. Then the necessity of protecting the cuttural tradition and the relevant efforts made so far are presented, while emphasis is faid on the architectural heritage and the European examples in particular. Finally, the article ends with a series of interesting findings and conclusions.